2019年7月13日托福阅读考前机经预测

来源:智课教育 时间:2019-07-08 14:56:25

   托福考试中,阅读部分的难点是最大的。针对7月13日的托福考试,在考前的最后阶段里,大家应该重点复习备考哪些阅读知识点呢?下面上海托福考试网小编为大家整理了详细的内容,供大家参考!

  Animal Behavior

  By the early 1900s the field of animal behavior had split into two major branches. One branch, ethology, developed primarily in Europe. To ethologists, what is striking about animal behaviors in that they are fixed and seemingly unchangeable? For example, kittens and puppies play in characteristic but different ways. Present a kitten with a ball of yarn and invariably it draws back its head and bats the yarn with claws extended. Kittens are generally silent as they play, and their tails twitch. Puppies, by contrast, are most likely to pounce flat-footed on a ball of yarn. They bit and bark and their tails wag. Ethologists came to believe that ultimately even the most complex animal behaviors could be broken down into a series of unchangeable stimulus/response reactions. They became convinced that the details of these patterns were as distinctive of a particular group of animals as were anatomical characteristics. For well over half a century, their search for and description of innate patterns of animal behavior continued.

  Meanwhile, mainly in North America, the study of animal behavior took a different tack, developing into comparative behavior. Of interest to comparative behaviorists was where a particular came from, that is, its evolutionary history, how the nervous system controlled it, and the extent to which it could be modified. In 1894, C. Lloyd Morgan, an early comparative behaviorist, insisted that animal behavior be explained as simply as possible without reference to emotions or motivations since these could not be observed or measured. In Morgan’s research, animals were put in simple situations, presented with an easily described stimulus, and their resultant behavior described.

  The extension to animals of behaviorism—the idea that the study of behavior should be restricted to only those elements that can be directly observed—was an important development in comparative behavior. Studies of stimulus/response and the importance of simple rewards to enforce and modify animal behavior were stressed. Not surprisingly, comparative behaviorists worked most comfortably in the laboratory. Comparative behaviorists stressed the idea that animal behavior could be modified, while their ethologist colleagues thought it was innate and unchangeable. Inevitably, the two approaches led to major disagreements.

  To early ethologists, the major driving force in behavior was instinct, behaviors that are inherited and unchangeable. ■ Moths move towards light because they inherit the mechanism to so respond to light. ■ Although dogs have more options available to them, they bark at strangers for much the same reasons. ■ The comparative behaviorists disagreed: learning and rewards are more important factors than instinct in animal behavior. ■ Geese are not born with the ability to retrieve lost eggs when they roll out the nest, they learn to do so. If their behavior seems sometimes silly to humans because it fails to take new conditions into account, that is because the animal’s ability to learn is limited. There were too many examples of behaviors modified by experience for comparative behaviorists to put their faith in instincts.

  5 The arguments came to a peak in the 1950s and became known as the nature or nurture controversy.

  Consider how differently an ethologist and a comparative behaviorist would interpret the begging behavior of a hatchling bird. The first time a hatchling bird is approached by its parent, it begs for food. All baby birds of a particular species beg in exactly the same way. Obviously, said the ethologists, they inherited the ability and the tendency to beg. Baby birds did not have to learn the behavior, they were born with it—a clear example of innate, unchanging behavior. Not so, countered the comparative behaviorists. Parent birds teach their young to beg by stuffing food in their open mouths. Later experiments showed that before hatching, birds make and respond to noises of their nest mates and adults. Is it not possible that young birds could learn to beg prenatally?

  It was hard for ethologists to accept that innate behaviors could be modified by learning. It was equally difficult for comparative behaviorists to accept that genetic factors could dominate learning experiences. The controversy raged for over a decade. Eventually, however, the distinctions between the two fields narrowed. The current view is that both natural endowments and environmental factors work together to shape behavior.

本文结束

特别声明:①凡本网注明稿件来源为"原创"的,转载必须注明"稿件来源:上海育路网",违者将依法追究责任;

②部分稿件来源于网络,旨在与用户分享信息,如有侵权,请联系我们沟通解决。

有用

25人觉的有用

阅读全文

留学申请登记

留学方向 :
服务需求 :
学生姓名 :
联系方式 :

出国留学、语培咨询电话:021-51601973、400-631-6616

相关文章推荐

18

2019.10

托福阅读解题效率低怎么办?这三个方法可以试一

托福阅读做题慢的问题是考生中较为常见的一个问题,而做题速度不够会給大家带来很大的时间压力,因此需要在备考中尽快解决。下面小编就来分享提升托福阅读解题效率的3个实用方法。
......

18

2019.10

2019年第三季度托福阅读考情分析

2019年前三季度共进行了36场托福考试,包含加场及下午场。在这36场考试当中,阅读部分在话题及题目上依旧延续去年的模式—多卷同考,新旧拼盘,大量旧题重复,阅读频繁加试。同时,今年8月份托福改革,托福阅读是改革的其中一个单项,虽然阅读题目数量有所改变,但改动是在原文原题的基础上进行部分题目的删减,所以文章内容和题目考察的大方向不变。鉴于以上信息,熟悉托福考情对于托福备考来说可以起到事半功倍的效果。
......

17

2019.10

2019年10月19日托福阅读机经预测

大家在备考托福阅读时,可以通过机经进行练习。因为机经内容里有更多的背景知识,这些内容有利于大家更好的理解文章,对于考试成绩提升也有很大的帮助。今天小编为大家带来了2019年10月19日托福阅读机经预测,下面一起来看看吧。
......

16

2019.10

托福阅读中常见的介词短语分享

看不懂托福阅读文章或是看文章速度太慢费时太多都是考生经常会遇到的问题,而想要解决这类问题大家就需要从基础出发,提升阅读词汇短语句式的储备。下面小编就来分享一些托福阅读中常见的介词短语,供大家参考。
......

15

2019.10

托福阅读5大高频考点关键词一览

相信做过一定数量托福阅读TPO真题的同学都会发现,阅读中文章的话题选择其实是有一定规律的,特定主题的文章在考试中出现频率很高,做题时经常会遇到,而有些话题则相当冷门,可能TPO从头到尾只遇到过一两篇。下面小编就为大家讲解托福阅读的5个高频考点关键词。
......

14

2019.10

托福阅读哪些题型错误率较高?如何解决?

托福阅读备考中比较常见且实用的一种学习思路是按照不同的题型来进行逐个突破式的针对性训练。实际上托福阅读按照官方指南OG公布的10大题型中,词汇题、句子简化题以及总结题恰巧都是错误率较高考试中又频繁出现的题型。如何做好这3个题型提升正确率呢?下面小编就来具体讲解应对思路。
......

您可能感兴趣
少儿英语机构 上海对外交流中心海外留学落户定向班 上海优质国际高中教育展 中外合作办学免联考硕士 上海自考本科培训